The role and importance of democracy in managing international crisis and conflicts

international conflict management

The intent is to draw out lessons—what George calls generic knowledge—about the conditions under which each type of intervention in fact reduces the likelihood of violent conflict and about the processes that lead to such outcomes.

In the 18th century only the American revolution produced a sustainable democracy. This classification is artificial in some cases because some conflict resolution approaches employ more than one of these strategies.

International conflict resolution examples

Much closer attention is paid to the emerging strategies of conflict resolution and to the techniques that embody them, about which much less has been written. Key inference problems are raised by the lack of adequate comparison situations and the need to compare actual events with imagined, or counterfactual, ones; the need to take into account the effects of other events that occur at the same time as the intervention; the need to consider indirect effects of the interventions; and the need to sort out the overlapping and conflicting effects of the multiple efforts that are often made to resolve a conflict. Even those lucky enough to live in mature democracies need to pay close attention to the architecture of their political systems. Some essential knowledge is highly situation specific and can come only from examining features of particular conflict situations in the present—the political forces currently affecting the parties in conflict, the personalities of the leaders, the contested terrain or resources, and so forth. Larry Summers, of Harvard University, observes that when America was growing fastest, it doubled living standards roughly every 30 years. Decolonialisation created a host of new democracies in Africa and Asia, and autocratic regimes gave way to democracy in Greece , Spain , Argentina , Brazil and Chile The United Nations Charter and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights established rights and norms that countries could not breach, even if majorities wanted to do so. The results of that analysis suggest that, although it makes sense to look carefully and critically at what is known about the traditional strategies and tools of conflict resolution that have received considerable attention from scholars and practitioners, it is especially important to examine what is known about less familiar strategies and tools that received limited attention in the past and that may be of major importance under the new conditions. Governments had steadily extended entitlements over decades, allowing dangerous levels of debt to develop, and politicians came to believe that they had abolished boom-bust cycles and tamed risk. The most encouraging example is California. Yet these days the exhilaration generated by events like those in Kiev is mixed with anxiety, for a troubling pattern has repeated itself in capital after capital. Many nominal democracies have slid towards autocracy, maintaining the outward appearance of democracy through elections, but without the rights and institutions that are equally important aspects of a functioning democratic system. Skilled practitioners use their judgment to combine generic and specific knowledge in order to act in what are always unique decision situations.

They identify the inherent difficulties of this task and show how progress can be made in the face of these obstacles. But recent events presage a more complex multidimensional arena of international conflict in which both state interests and nonstate actors are important parts of the mix.

International conflict resolution definition

Slow growth and tight budgets will provoke conflict as interest groups compete for limited resources. But it did the democratic cause great harm. Mr Morsi treated democracy as a winner-takes-all system, packing the state with Brothers, granting himself almost unlimited powers and creating an upper house with a permanent Islamic majority. This postmodern tsar has destroyed the substance of democracy in Russia, muzzling the press and imprisoning his opponents, while preserving the show—everyone can vote, so long as Mr Putin wins. Second, the many tradeoffs in any decision situation make general knowledge an imperfect guide to action. And they have contributed to the development and enforcement of new international norms by promoting and monitoring conditions of human rights, treatment of minorities, and democratic governance e. However, even with the perfect diagnosis of a situation, generic knowledge cannot be expected to provide prescriptions for action, for several reasons. The first great setback was in Russia. We also hope, of course, to advance knowledge among specialists about the functioning and effectiveness of the various techniques of international conflict resolution.

We also hope, of course, to advance knowledge among specialists about the functioning and effectiveness of the various techniques of international conflict resolution.

The conceptual challenges include defining and classifying interventions, defining success, and setting reasonable expectations for the effects of an intervention.

The role and importance of democracy in managing international crisis and conflicts

Larry Summers, of Harvard University, observes that when America was growing fastest, it doubled living standards roughly every 30 years. Most of the contributors used some form of structured case comparison to do their work. For them it will collect useful knowledge, raise important issues for the future development of knowledge, and generate a variety of propositions to examine and hypotheses to test in future research in this area. Available knowledge about the international system had virtually nothing to say about the conditions under which an international epidemic of democratization would break out, or a great empire would peacefully liquidate itself, or a new historical era would dawn without a great-power war. Many of the substantive studies in Chapters 3 through 14 take up the challenges defined in Chapter 2 , making new contributions to knowledge by clarifying concepts; defining types of interventions; stating explicit hypotheses about causes, effects, and causal mechanisms; defining outcome indicators; and so forth. Getting democracy right THE most striking thing about the founders of modern democracy such as James Madison and John Stuart Mill is how hard-headed they were. Barry Blechman and Tamara Cofman Wittes explain this paradox of power by identifying a number of conditions that, although neither necessary or sufficient for the success of a U. Some essential knowledge is highly situation specific and can come only from examining features of particular conflict situations in the present—the political forces currently affecting the parties in conflict, the personalities of the leaders, the contested terrain or resources, and so forth. Chapter 3 , for example, focuses on the use and threat of force.

NGOs are uniquely able to contribute by deploying the emerging tools of conflict resolution, as they have increasingly done in recent years.

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