A study on methamphetamine and its effects on the central nervous system of the prenatal mothers and
Future research should examine if prenatal METH exposure is able to alter the methylation status of the Nr3c1 gene.
Babies born addicted to crystal meths
Functional magnetic resonance imaging studies in methamphetamine-exposed and alcohol-exposed, alcohol-only exposed, and control children found more diffuse activation in the brains of the methamphetamine group during verbal memory tasks, suggesting recruitment of compensatory systems. The number of pups in each litter was adjusted to METH-administered prenatally increases infant mortality, reduces weight gain, delays development and slows down reflexes Martin et al. Due to dysfunction in this system such things as cognitive functioning and attention capacity are impeded, resulting in a poor ability to decode or encode information and form memories. The results of the Nr3c1 gene expression were normalized to the results of the expression of the reference B2m gene. Key Words: Pregnant mice, Methamphetamine, Embryo development, Apoptosis Introduction Percentage of the women who are in reproductive age and use illicit drugs is growing and while of illicit drugs affects pregnant women and fetal development 1 , 2. Patients who had been exposed prenatally to alcohol show decreased ability to hold and manipulate information in working memory the memory system that is used to keep things in mind during complex tasks. However, screening should only be done with consent, and the pregnant woman must be informed of the potential ramifications of a positive test result, including any mandated reporting requirements 30, METH travels through the bloodstream to the brain, where it readily crosses the blood-brain barrier Dattel, ; Burchfield et al. The hippocampus plays important roles in the consolidation of information from short-term memory to long-term memory, and in spatial memory that enables navigation Anderson et al. J Dev Behav Pediatr ;—
These findings are supported by many experimental studies that show the damaging effects of maternal MA exposure on their offspring. Some effects of prenatal MA exposure on the fetus are reduction of birth weight and head circumference, cerebral hemorrhage, growth retardation, prematurity, cardiac anomalies, cleft palate and possibly death 11 Reference genes, Rps6 and B2m, were chosen according to the best reproducible results observed for gene expression in all three types of tissues striatum, hippocampus, prefrontal cortex.
Auditory stimuli presented in the womb can be retained and recognized learned into the days following birth and that learning is specific to familiar auditory stimuli. To achieve this aim, fetus brain was dewaxed in xylene and rehydrated through a graded series of ethanol.
The online substance abuse treatment locator identifies treatment facilities within a set radius of a locality. Differences were counted by the Mann—Whitney U-test. Highlights - The microarray technique detected either up-regulated or down-regulated expression of genes in the striatum of prenatally METH-exposed rats.
Drug use during first 9 weeks of pregnancy
After alcohol and marijuana, methamphetamine is the drug most frequently abused in many western and midwestern states 1. METH is a powerfully addictive stimulant that metabolizes slowly resulting in the drug having a long-lasting high 8 to 24 h Marwick, Also it can cause hyperthermia and even sudden death in consumers. Cart peptide was detected in the rat nucleus accumbens and due to its distribution in the brain and its modulation of dopamine systems, may be involved in aspects of reward and drug abuse Hubert and Kuhar, ; Kuhar et al. A scientific control group of babies in the neonatal period, having not been exposed to the stimulus as a fetus, are used in neonatal trials to serve as a comparison. Differences in the gene expression were counted by the Mann—Whitney U-test. This process is repeated until habituation, defined as a lack of response to the stimulus by the fetus, is reached. Hydroxyl radicals cause DNA damage and participate in formation of 8-hydroxyguanine and its keto-form, 7,8-dihydrooxoguanine 8-oxoG Contingency management interventions, which provide tangible incentives in exchange for engaging in treatment and maintaining abstinence, also have been shown to be effective Children exposed to meth in utero scored lower on key measures of memory performance, including attention, verbal memory and long term spatial memory. Taken together, findings to date do not support an increase in birth defects with use of methamphetamine in pregnancy, but methamphetamine use is consistently associated with SGA infants and appears to be associated with neonatal and childhood neurodevelopmental abnormalities. ASAM state officer directory. Research has focused on a variety of recreational drugs, primarily alcohol , cocaine , heroin , and methamphetamine. Meanwhile, methamphetamine MA is one of the most common illicit drugs, it was reported that nearly half of the MA consumers are women 3. On PD 1, the offspring were marked according to the prenatal exposure using the intradermal application of black India ink; the METH group of prenatally affected offspring was marked in the left foot pad, and the SAL group of prenatally affected offspring was marked in the right foot pad.
Given that the olfactory receptors are only present in the Rattus norvegicus species NCIB database we did not further investigate the decreased mRNA of olfactory gene expression in the striatum and hippocampus, as such studies in rats would not contribute to our understanding of addiction to METH in humans.
The measured values were normalized to the measured values of the reference B2m gene Figures 23.
Prenatal exposure to drugs and the effects on brain development
However, screening should only be done with consent, and the pregnant woman must be informed of the potential ramifications of a positive test result, including any mandated reporting requirements 30, The effects of snorting are felt within 3—5 minutes and within 15—20 minutes when ingested orally. Methamphetamine, commonly known as meth, is another stimulant that has been demonstrated to have negative effects on the offspring of a pregnant woman, and is considered a level C pregnancy category drug. Crystal meth is a form of methamphetamine that can be smoked. Cognitive—behavioral therapy, such as the Matrix Model, which includes behavioral therapy, family education, individual counseling, step support, and drug testing is recommended 35, Identification of Methamphetamine Use Given the potential risks to maternal, fetal, and infant health with methamphetamine use in pregnancy, identification of use is important. Additional assessments such as fetal surveillance should be done as clinically indicated. METH-administered prenatally increases infant mortality, reduces weight gain, delays development and slows down reflexes Martin et al. Full-term babies act more like premature infants, often showing difficulty in sucking and swallowing. Unfortunately, once the pleasurable effects wear off, other less-desirable ones follow. However, the increase was not detected, when the measured values were normalized to the measured values of the reference Rps6 gene. Committee Opinion No. J Perinatol ;—3. The first microarray trial detected either up-regulated or down-regulated expression of genes in the striatum; the second microarray trial detected either up-regulated or down-regulated expression of genes in the hippocampus of prenatally METH-exposed rats. Also, it can lead to the development of alcohol-related problems in later years, such as alcohol dependence.
METH is known to have a high addiction liability i. In Taar1-knock out mice sensitivity to amphetamine and methamphetamine was exacerbated Lindemann et al. Obstet Gynecol ;—4.
based on 81 review